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Translation Services
Bullet English to Spanish
Bullet Spanish to English
Areas of expertise: literature, art, philosophy, psychology, journalism and history.

Literary Services
Bullet Query Letters
Bullet Synopsis
Bullet Proofreading
Bullet Editing of short stories and novels--English and Spanish
Bullet Business letters--English and Spanish
Bullet Personal letters--English and Spanish


What does an editor do?

Copyediting involves reviewing documents critically for matters of tone, style, flow, word choice, point of view, consistency, factual accuracy, suitability of graphic elements, even legal problems the document might pose. A good editor might suggest ways a writer could retool his/her data and information for many other purposes, (i.e., grant applications, public-value promotions, marketing, Web pages, interdisciplinary partnerships, peer-reviewed journal articles).

A brief introduction to some aspects of copyediting:

Critical language review

Most people understand that editors look at the grammar, spelling, syntax, and the general mechanics of good prose style. This aspect of editing focuses on grammar, sentence structure, and spelling. More than other aspects of editing, language editing follows a fairly standard set of rules. Another layer of language review looks at diction: the choice of words and the meanings they deliver.

Some deeper questions editors may ask of the language of a document:

Does it unintentionally insult or misrepresent readers?
Does it contain unexamined assumptions?
Does it present a strong, unstated bias?
Does it deliver on the promise implicit in its title and lead sentences?
Does it contain jargon, familiar to those in the author’s professional discipline, but not to other readers?
Does it contain clichés (trite, worn-out phrases that no longer convey much meaning but that do hog precious space)?
Does it use “50-cent” words without conveying their meanings through context?
Does the writer present numerical data clearly and accurately?


Substantive editing requires asking questions about the facts the author presents in a document. Fact checking involves asking questions such as:

Does the writer substantiate stated facts?
Does the writer state opinion as fact?
Do the facts in one section of the document contradict facts presented elsewhere?
Does the text appear to present outdated facts?
Does the empirical data presented in charts and graphs align with information presented in text?
Graphical elements and visual displays

Copyeditors ask:

Do the graphical elements (photos, drawings, clip art, charts, graphs, tables, page layout) match the tone, style, and needs of the primary target audience(s) of the document it accompanies? Does the writer represent numerical information in a way lay readers can easily understand? Do the graphic elements (photos, clip art, charts, graphs, tables) deliver information that supports and expands understanding of ideas presented by text, rather than serve a purely decorative/aesthetic function?
Could graphic elements replace blocks of unwieldy, confusing text to make information more readily accessible to readers?

Legal issues

These may involve matters of potential copyright or trademark infringement, libel and other concerns. Copy editors don’t make legal decisions, of course, but they do look for red flags to bring to writers’, program leaders’, or administrators’ attention.

The bottom line?

Love your editor and cultivate a strong, trusting relationship with one. He or she can make your work sing and keep you out of trouble. Best of all, you get the credit!

Story credit: University of New Hampshire extension.unh.edu

Lite Samples of my work Lite

BulletNovel Chapter

References available upon request

For more information, E-mail: Marilyn

Click on the book cover below to see one of the books she has edited

Burt Foreman's Book

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Click on the picture to see another book edited by Marilyn

Literary Agents email addresses

If you've written a story or a novel, click Literary Agents email addresses to see a list of literary agents' e-mail addresses